Minggu, 24 Mei 2009


Greeting (also called accosting) is an act of communication in which human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. While greeting customs are highly culture- and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures.

Greetings are often, but not always, used just prior to a conversation.

Some epochs and cultures have had very elaborate greeting rituals, e.g., greeting of a king.

Secret societies have clandestine greeting rituals that allow members to recognize common membership.


Person A: “Hi, my name is Steve. It’s nice to meet you.”

Person B: “I’m Jack. It’s a pleasure to meet you, Steve.”

Person A: “What do you do for a living Jack?”

Person B: “I work at the bank.”

Two friends meeting

Friends often say "Hi" to each other. Then they often ask a general question, such as "How are you?" or "How are things?" or "How's life?"

The reply to this question is normally positive.

"Fine thanks, and you?"

"Fine thanks, what about yourself?"

"Not bad." Or "Can't complain."

Greeting people you don't know

You can use "Hello" with people you don't know, but a more formal greeting is "Good morning / afternoon / evening."

The other person normally replies with the same greeting as you have used and then makes polite conversation, such as "How was your trip?" or "Did you find our office easily?"

Introducing yourself

At an informal party

"Hello, I'm Maria." Or "Hello, my name's Maria."

The reply could be:

"Hi, I'm Sarah." Or "Hello Maria, I'm Sarah." Or "Nice to meet you, I'm Sarah."

At work-related events

"I'd like to introduce myself. I'm Maria, from english@home."

Or, "Let me introduce myself. I'm Maria from english@home."

The reply could be:

"Nice to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations."

"Pleased to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations."

"How do you do? I'm Peter Mitchell from Mitchell Creations."

Introducing other people

Introducing a friend to a work colleague

"Sarah, have you met my colleague John?"

"Sarah, I'd like you to meet my colleague John."

Sarah says:

"Pleased to meet you, John." Or "Nice to meet you, John."

John could say:

"Nice to meet you too, Sarah." Or "Hello, Sarah."

Introducing clients

"Mr Mitchell, I'd like to introduce you to my manager, Henry Lewis."

Mr Mitchell could then say:

"How do you do?" and Henry Lewis also says "How do you do?"

Or Mr Mitchell could say:

"Pleased to meet you." Or "Good to meet you."

Speaking Tip

"How do you do?" is quite formal for British English speakers and the reply to this question is to repeat the phrase, "How do you do?" (as strange as that may sound!)

At a more informal party

When you introduce two of your friends to each other, you can simply say, "John, this is Sarah."

Cultural considerations

At work, one person may have higher status - your boss, or a client, for example. It's polite to address them as Mr / Ms until the situation becomes more informal.

If someone says, "Please call me (Henry)", you know you can use first names. If someone uses your first name, you can use their first name too.

People in European and English-speaking cultures often shake hands when they meet someone for the first time.

News Item

Is a report of recent occurences; information of something that has lately taken place, or of something before unknown; recent information about specific and timely events.

Other definition

  • Information about recent events or happenings, espespecially as reported by newspapaers, periodical, radio, or television.

Special Function

  • To inform read or listener or viewer about events of the day which are considered news worth or important.

Generic Structure

  1. News worthy event:
    • Recount the event in summary form.

  1. Background event:
    • Elaborate what happened, to whom I what circumstances.

  1. Source:
    • Comments by participants in witness and authorities expert on the event.

4. Form:

· Using simple present & past tense

(but generally prefers simple present tense)


Short, brief information about story captured in head line.

Use material process to retell the event.

Using saying verbs like say, tell, inform.

Focus on circumstances.

Use of projecting verbal process in source stager.

Using action verbs, like, escape, go, run.

Example (a brief sentence cut of some news item):

1. His family has had no news of his whereabouts for months.

2. The job requirements were news to him.

3. The news of the famous actor’s death was greatly exaggerated.


Advertisement is information for persuad and motivate a people so that it will anracted. Them to the service and things that are affered.

Function advertisement are :
- Promotion
- Communication
- Information

In making advertisement, keep the following points :
1. Language of advertisement
  • Using the correct or suitable world
  • Using the interesting expression and suggestive
  • Using positive cannotations
  • Text of advertisement snold directly to the go
2. Advertisement content
  • Objective and hanest
  • Brief and clear
  • Don't to allude group and to other producer
  • Attractive attention